Here’s some cool conclusions I’ve come to while researching Cornelius the Centurion in Acts 10:
- Cornelius was a Centurion in the "Italian Cohort" in Caesarea, Caesar's city.
- There was one Legion stationed in Judea prior to the Jewish War, the Legio X or "Fretensis" which was originally raised by Julius Caesar and was his personal legion. They later are the legion that conquers Masada.
- The Legio X was headquartered at Caesarea and the Italian Cohort was there according to Acts 10.
- The cohorts of Legio X were scattered throughout Judea in various garrisons.
- Legio X was levied primarily from local (Syrian) conscripts except, apparently, the Italian Cohort which was likely the double-sized first cohort (the storm troopers of a legion).
- Pilate lived at Caesarea most of the year but went to Jerusalem with a major show of force during the feasts and likely would have taken the double-sized Italian Cohort (his best, closest, and most loyal troops) with him the tense Passover of Jesus' death.
- There were 6 centuries, thus, 6 centurions in a cohort like the Italian Cohort. There is a 1 in 6 chance that Cornelius is the Centurion at the cross and, if not, he was likely in the Antonia fortress and may have been the commanding centurion of the Italian Cohort.
The point, this is a guy is very intimately connected with the events Peter preaches to him in Acts 10 and is a Centurion of Centurions. He's a member of the most Roman cohort of the most Roman (and Caesarean) legion in the empire which is stationed in Caesar's city. Jesus is Kurios, not Caesar.